Robert Schumann

The son of a bookseller, he early showed ability as a pianist and an interest in composing as well as literary leanings. In 1821 he went to Leipzig to study law but instead spent his time in musical, social and literary activities. He wrote some piano music and took lessons from Friedrich Wieck. After a spell in Heidelberg, ostensibly studying law but actually music, he persuaded his family that he should give up law in favor of a pianist's career, and in 1830 he went to live with Wieck at Leipzig.

In 1834 Schumann founded a music journal, the "Neue Zeitschrift fí¼r Musik"; he was its editor and leading writer for ten years. He was a brilliant and perceptive critic: his writings embody the most progressive aspects of musical thinking in his time, and he drew attention to many promising young composers. Sometimes he wrote under pseudonyms, Eusebius (representing his lyrical, contemplative side) and Florestan (his fiery, impetuous one); he used these in his music, too. His compositions at this time were mainly for piano: they include variations on the name of one on his lady friends, Abegg (the musical notes A-B-E-G-G), the character-pieces Davidsbí¼ndlertänze ("Dances of the league of David,"), Carnaval, Phantasiestí¼cke, Kreisleriana, and Kinderszenen. Affairs of the heart played a large part in his life. By 1835 he was in love with Wieck's young daughter Clara, but Wieck did his best to separate them. They pledged themselves in 1837 but were much apart and Schumann went through deep depressions. In 1839 they took legal steps to make Wieck's consent unnecessary, and after many further trials they were able to marry in 1840.

In 1841, Schumann turned to orchestral music: he wrote symphonies and a beautiful, poetic piece for piano and orchestra for Clara that he later reworked as the first movement of his Piano Concerto. Then in 1842, when Clara was away on a concert tour, he turned to chamber music, and wrote his three string quartets and three works with piano, of which the Piano Quintet has always been a favorite for the freshness and Romantic warmth of its ideas. In 1843, he turned to choral music, working at a secular oratorio and at setting part of Goethe's "Faust." He also took up a teaching post at the new conservatory in Leipzig of which Mendelssohn was director. But he was an ineffectual teacher; and he had limited success as a conductor too. He and Clara moved to Dresden in 1844, but his deep depressions continued, hampering his creativity. Not until 1847-48 was he again productive, writing his opera Genoveva, chamber music and songs. In 1850 he took up a post in Dí¼sseldorf as town musical director. He was at first happy and prolific, writing the eloquent Cello Concerto and the Rhenish Symphony, but the post worked out badly because of his indifferent conducting. In 1852-53 his health and spirits deteriorated and he realized that he could not continue in his post. In 1854 he began to suffer hallucinations; he attempted suicide and entered an asylum, where he died in 1856, almost certainly of the effects of syphilis, cared for at the end by Clara and the young Brahms.